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  • br Sponsors had no role in data collection analysis


    Sponsors had no role in data collection, analysis or interpretation of results.
    Potential conflict of interest
    Francesc X. Bosch has received scientific advisory board fees, speaker’s fees, or travel grants from GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Sanofi Pasteur MSD, Genticel, Hologic and Roche; and unrestricted institu-tional research grants from GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Qiagen, and Roche. Cancer Epidemiology Research Program (Francesc X. Bosch, 
    Laia Alemany, Laia Bruni, Beatriz Serrano) has received unrestricted research grants from Merck and co. Hyunju Lee receives honorarium for lectures from Merck, Sanofi Pasteur MSD and GlaxoSmithKline.
    All other authors declare no potential conflicts of interest. References
    Muñoz, F.X. Bosch, S. de Sanjosé. ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cancer (HPV Information Centre). Human Papillomavirus and Related Diseases in Republic of Korea. Summary Report 27 July 2017. Korea, Republic of : Human Papillomavirus and Related Diseases, Summary Report 2017 - KOR.pdf [Internet], 2017. Available from: 〈〉 (Accessed 25 July 2017).
    [51] Press release by KCDC [korean] February: Cervical cancer screening from age 20.
    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Toxicology in Vitro
    journal homepage:
    Butyl benzyl phthalate promotes prostate cancer cell proliferation through T miR-34a downregulation
    Mingming Zhua,b , Jieshu Wub, Xiao Mab, Cong Huangb, Rui Wub, Weiwei Zhub, Xiaoting Lib, Zhaofeng Liangb, Feifei Dengb, Jianyun Zhub, Wei Xieb, Xue Yang b, Ye Jiangb, Shijia Wangb, Shanshan Gengb, Chunfeng Xie b, Caiyun Zhongb, a Department of Nutrition, The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China b Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China
    Phthalate esters
    Prostate cancer
    Cell proliferation 
    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men. Phthalate esters are a class of environmental endocrine disruptors and were reported to be cancer promoting agents, however the potential role of phthalate esters in prostate cancer has been rarely reported. Mounting evidence has shown that miR-34a is a master tumor sup-pressor miRNA in cancer. The aim of this ZVADFMK study was to investigate the role of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), one of the typical phthalate esters, in cell proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Human prostate cancer LNCaP and PC-3 cells were exposed to low dose of BBP for 6 days. The results showed that 10−6 and 10−7 mol/L BBP increased the expression of cyclinD1 and PCNA, decreased p21 expression, and induced cell growth in both LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Furthermore, we found that BBP significantly downregulated the expression of miR-34a, along with upregulation of miR-34a target gene c-myc. Using cell tranfection of miR-34a mimic and inhibitor, we de-monstrated that BBP promoted cell proliferation through miR-34a/c-myc axis in prostate cancer cells. Findings from this study could provide new insight into the involvement and the molecular mechanism of phthalate esters on prostate cancer.
    1. Introduction
    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy and accounts for almost 1 in 5 new diagnoses in male (Siegel et al., 2017). To date, there are multiple well-established risk factors for prostate cancer including family history, hormones, race, aging, etc. (Gathirua-Mwangi and Zhang, 2014). Mounting evidence also has shown that environmental agents like endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may also be a risk factor for prostate cancer (Bostwick et al., 2004). Phthalate esters are a class of EDCs, which include diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), Dioctyl phthalate (DNOP), etc. Phthalate esters are typical plasticizer and widely used in various kinds of industrial products such as drinks, convenience food, milk powder, spices, health care products, medicines and cosmetics. Phthalate esters make the packaging mate-rials get favorable toughness and flexible; however they are not cova-lently bound to the products. Thus with the using of these products, phthalate esters may migrate into the environment and expose to human body (Bradley et al., 2013; Choi et al., 2013). Studies have
    Corresponding author.
    E-mail address: c[email protected] (C. Zhong). 
    shown that expose to phthalate esters accelerate the development of cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the En-vironmental Protection Agency have listed phthalate esters as human cancer promoting agent or carcinogens (Doull et al., 1999). Phthalate esters may increase the incidence and promote the progress of several types of cancers including liver cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer and multiple myeloma (Heineman et al., 1992; Selenskas et al., 1995; Rusyn and Corton, 2012; Hsu et al., 2014). However, the potential role of phthalate esters in prostate cancer has been rarely reported.